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The length of the river is 1362 km, of which 925 km in the territory of Ukraine.

The area of ​​the pool is 72100 km2, of which 52690 km2 in the territory of Ukraine.

The leak from a small source near the village of Vovchy of the Turku district of the Lviv region, located in the southern part of the array Verkhnednistrovsky Beskydy (Ukrainian Carpathians), southwest of the Razluch Mountain, at an altitude of 818 m BS.

The mouth reaches the Dniester estuary to the south of the village of Mayaky, Bilyayevsky district of the Odessa region.

Average annual long-term water consumption in the hydropaste formation Zalishchiki is 230 m3 / s

Main tributaries:

Right: Stry, Candle, Limnica, Bystrica, Seret, Zbruch, Muraf, Reut.

Left: Stryivigore, Vereshchitsa, Shchirka, Gnila Lipa, Zolota Lipa, Strip, Dzhurin, Seret, Nichlava, Zbruch, Smotrych, Sedenitsa, Ushitsa, Zhvan, Zhvanchik, Lyadov, Murafa, Rusava, Yagorlik, Kuchurgan.


Geographical location

The Dniester is a transboundary river between Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova. It is the second largest river in Ukraine and the ninth in Europe. From the sources to the city of Staryj Sambir Dniester flows through the Carpathian Mountains, then - along the plains of Ukraine and Moldova. From Kozlov (Mohyliv-Podilsky district of the Vinnytsia region) to the village. Nimeruki (Soroca region, Moldova) along the Dniester passes the state border between Ukraine and Moldova. Then the river flows through the territory of Moldova. From Purcara (Stefan-Vodsk district, Moldova) to the village. Palanga on the Dniester passes the border between two states. Below with. Palanga Dniester flows through Ukraine.

The Dniester basin is located in seven oblasts in the southwest of Ukraine (Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ternopil, Khmelnytsky, Vinnytsia, Chernivtsi and Odesa regions). A small section in the upper reaches of the pool is in Poland. The pool is shaped like a very elongated, curved in the middle of an oval in length about 700 km and an average width of 120 km. Heights in the mountainous part of the basin reach 1000 - 1800 m BS.



Figure 1.1 - Map of the river Dniester basin.


There are 14 886 rivers in the Dniester basin, but only 11 of its tributaries have a length of more than 100 km. The main feature of the hydrographic grid of the Dniester basin is the lack of significant influxes. Within Ukraine there are only 6 rivers belonging to the middle ones; Their length does not exceed 250 km. Prevailing small rivers up to 10 km. The river net in the basin is developed unevenly. It is the thickest (more than 1 - 1.5 km / km2) in the Carpathian part of the basin, smaller - on the left bank (0.5 - 0.7 km / km2).

In the river basin there are many ponds and reservoirs. At the beginning of the 21st century in the Dniester basin (within Ukraine) there are 3447 ponds with a total volume of 244.4 million m3 and 65 reservoirs with a total volume of 3253.5 million m3.

Three reservoirs were built on the Dniester River in Ukraine: Dnistrovsky, Dnistrovskyi and Dnistrovsky hydro-accumulating. They together form the complex of Dniester reservoirs, the main purpose of which is flood and hydroelectric power.

Dnistrovsky Reservoir is located at a distance of 677.7 km from the mouth of the Dniester, its length is 194 km, located on the territory of Chernivtsi, Khmelnytsky, Vinnytsia and Ternopil regions. Characteristic features of the reservoir are its considerable depth, relatively small width and high vorosity. The Dniester reservoir was created on a plain plateau in the deep-crocheted valley of the Dniester, with a pronounced asymmetric valley. The Dniester buffer reservoir is formed on the Dniester section from Dniester hydroelectric station to Dniester hydroelectric power station-2 and is intended for the daily equalization of discharges of water from HPPs to the lower reaches of the Dniester River.

At the confluence with the Dniester estuary, the Dniester forms a smooth system with a total area of ​​700 km2. This is an independent element of the Dniester basin landscape. Smooth covers part of the Dniester valley from Bendery to the estuary, its surface is cut off by sleeves, elderly people flooded during floods.


Geology and relief


Geologically, the Dniester basin is timed to the Precarpathian edge of the Carpathian folded system, the Western European platform, the Volyn Podilsky plate and the slopes of the Ukrainian crystalline shield, and its lower reaches to the Black Sea basin. In the modern relief of the basin, these geological structures are represented, respectively, by the northeastern slopes of the Ukrainian Carpathians, Volyn-Podilsky and Bessarabian Plateau and the Black Sea Lowland. The Carpathian part of the basin is a mountainous area of ​​the northern slopes of the Carpathians with dominant altitudes of 500-1500 m, the highest 1600-1800 m. The main tributaries of the Dniester River are mountainous rivers with significant slopes, rocky-rock and pebble beds and little permeable underlying Soils Within the Volyn-Podilsky Hills, where the average flow of the Dniester and its left tributaries are located, the prevailing heights are 200-400 m, while the pool is a rocky surface with a well-developed hydrographic network.

The most ancient geological formations are the breeds of the Precambrian period: gneisses, sandstones, quartzites, shales, granites, and others. Their exits to the bottom and slopes of the annual valleys are accompanied by the presence of rapids, canyoned valleys and sloping slopes. On the Volyn-Podilsky Plateau in the Precambrian rocks the breeds of the Paleozoic period occur: clayey shale, siltstones, sandstones, sandstones, limestone and limestone.


Soils and vegetation.


Soil-forming rocks are quaternary deposits and weathering products of tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks. These include deposition: a) glacial and associated fluvioglacial; B) alluvial and alluvial-lake; Y) proluvial; D) eluvial; E) rolling and collapsing; E) landslides; G) deluvial; С) елювіально-делювіальні.

In the mountainous Carpathian part of the basin, the soil cover is represented by the following types of soils: brown-ground-podzolic, brown-earth-mountain-forest, sod-brown-meadow and mountain-meadow on different soil forming rocks. Turf-podzolic and gray forest soils predominate on the left bank of the Dniester River and in the middle part of its basin, there are areas with podzolized and typical black earths, peat-bogs, meadow-bog soils. In the lower reaches of the Dniester (within Ukraine), soils are represented by southern, northern, and typical chernozems.

Due to the large distribution of limestone and gypsum in the basin, there are widely developed surface karst forms that cause redistribution of drainage.

In the valley of the Dniester and its tributaries flood plains are developed. They occupy wide river valley bottoms and are composed of sand-pebble alluvium with sod-gley soils with meadow vegetation, bush of willow, alder, croissant. There are many elders, dumb ramparts, sunken depressions, alternating with reclaimed lands.

Natural forest vegetation is best preserved in the Carpathians. The most widespread are spruce, fir and beech. The main belt of their distribution is in the sources of the Dniester and its Carpathian influx. On the slopes of the valleys distributed mixed and broadleaf forests. Main rocks: oak, beech, hornbeam, linden. In the undercut there is a haze. In wet places - gum and elm. Beech-fir-spruce forests and grass-meadow grass meadows are common in vikotokretachnyh areas.

Hornbeam and oak forests are distributed on Podolsky part of the basin. In the valleys of the rivers are very common shrubs. The Transnistria Podillya is the only territory in Ukraine where warm-loving forests of oak rock are found.

In the steppe (lower) part of the basin, forests are preserved mainly in the ravines. The whole reindeer part of the Dniester is covered with thick vegetation (willow, poplar). In the Dniester plains, the common reed is predominant. Occasionally you can hit the lake meadows.


The territory of the basin represents a very complicated climatic area. Carpathians play an important role in shaping the climate. Height above sea level, large intersection of the area, direction and exposure of slopes - all this contributes to a peculiar distribution of meteorological elements in the mountains. In the Carpathians, it creates its mountainous climate, which is characterized by a pronounced vertical zoning.

The climate in the pool is moderately continental with warm, mild winters and long, wet summers. The area is located within the steppe and forest-steppe zones. The average annual rainfall varies from 500 mm on the Volyn-Podilsky plateau to 1100 mm or more in the mountainous part of the basin. A distinctive feature of the rainfall regime in the upper reaches is the active storm activity, which determines the flood hydrological regime of the rivers.

The Carpathian part of the basin with elevations from 400 to 1500 - 1800 m abs takes up about 30% of the catchment. Annual amounts of precipitation in the Carpathians reach 800-1000 mm, in some years - up to 1400 mm; On the Podolsk hill - from 700 to 800 mm in the northwest to less than 500 mm in the south-east. Most of the precipitation falls in the summer. The most rainy is July with an average over several years, the amount of precipitation is 70-142 mm. The daily amount of precipitation on average is 4.1-5.3 mm. The maximum daily amount of precipitation is noted during very intense and prolonged rainfall, most often in June - July and reaches 67-149 mm per day.

A characteristic feature is the unstable temperature regime in winter. Winter thaws, caused by the penetration of warm air masses from the southwest, often cover the foothills and plains of the basin.

Hydrological characteristic

The upper part of the Dniester basin to the border with the Republic of Moldova is located in the Precarpathian and Podilsky hydrological districts, the lower part (within Ukraine) - in the Black Sea. The river basin under the conditions of power, orographic and climatic features is divided into three parts: the Carpathian, Volyn - Podolsk and the lower southern parts.

A characteristic feature of the hydrological regime of the Dniester is the presence of floods throughout the summer period of the year, in some years in the winter, and often the maximum cost of storm floods significantly exceeds the maximum of spring water.

The unevenness of the river network and the climatic conditions have caused different fluctuations in the Dniester's influx. For the upper mountainous part of the basin, especially the right bank, flood pattern is characteristic throughout the year. The rivers of the middle and lower parts of the basin are characterized by spring floods and small floods in the warm season. The average annual flow of the Dniester River at the mouth is 10.0 km3 / year. In some years it can decrease to 4.5 km3, or increase to 19.3 km3.

Main supply of the Dniester is rainy and snow-rainy. Underground power is insignificant and weighty mainly in the middle current.

The upper Carpathian part of the Dniester is characterized by floods throughout the year, due to heavy rainfall during the warmer years, snow melting in the mountains during the period of flooding and general melting of the snow cover in the spring. Spring falls often passes through several waves, in recent years the development of the waterfall is complicated and intensified by spring rain and, in such cases, the second peak may exceed the first.

A characteristic feature of the natural water regime of the rivers Volyn-Podilsky part of the basin (within the Podilsky hydrological region) is the formation of a marked waterfall, during which there passes from 50 to 80% of the annual drainage, and the period of boundaries, which can be interrupted by low and frequent rain (talo-rainy ) Floods. Summer rains, as a rule, do not cause intense flood during the summer-autumn period. But since the drain of the Upper Carpathian part of the Dniester is an average of 70% of the river's flow, the flood regime is maintained throughout its entire length.

The overall water content of the rivers tends to decrease in the south-easterly direction. The richest are the rivers of the mountainous part. Here the values ​​of the average annual drainage modules reach 20-30 l / (km2). On the rivers of the middle part, this indicator varies within 2-5 l / (kmkm2). The smallest water content of the rivers of the Black Sea Plain is different. Here the drainage modules are reduced from 1.3 to 0.4 liters / (km2).

During floods, raising the water level is fast - up to 50-60 cm per hour; And the decline is slow. At high floods the water level reaches a maximum of 1-2 days. Both maximum and minimum levels can be observed at any time of year. Although, the maxima are more often observed in the spring and summer, and the minima - in winter and late autumn. During the year there are up to 9-10 floods.

Spring falls on plain tributaries within the Volyn-Podilskyi hills passes a little earlier than on the mountainous ones. Medium terms of the beginning - the first decade of March. The highest levels are usually in the second to third decade of March.

In 1981-1987, the Dnistrovsky Reservoir was built with an area of ​​3.0 km3, an area of ​​142 km2, and a length of 194 km. The main inflow of water to the Dniester reservoir, which by weight is the limiting part of the total flow, is mainly formed in the Carpathian part of the catchment within the Precarpathian hydrological region. After the construction of the Dniester Hydroelectric Station, a substantial change was made in the annual distribution of runoff below the river's course. Its share increased in the autumn-winter period, mainly due to lowering the stock in the spring.

The ice regime is unstable with the frequent installation of a not-powerful ice-breaker and its crease. This leads to the formation of congestion, which often reach significant sizes and are accompanied by a high rise of the water level (up to 4 m and more); Often impregnated phenomena are also noted in the upper part of the Dniester reservoir.

The largest floods in recent decades were marked in the summer of 1980, 1998, 2008, 2010, in autumn 2007.

Average and extreme water consumption

And the volume of drain water.


Maximum line flow, m3 / sec

Flood flow volume, mln. M3

The Dniester River is the city of Galich. 1946-2010




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The Dniester River is the city of Zalishchiki. 1945-2010




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Stryi village - Verkhny Synyovydn city.1951-2010.




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r.Slavske - v. Slavske.1954-2010




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r. Calus - смт. Nova Ushica in 1951-2010




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Characteristic water levels


Level, sm


The Dniest er River is the city of Galich. 1983-2010 "0" post 211.26 m BS 










The Dniester River is the city of Zalishchiki. 1877-2010 "0" fasting is 140.69 m BS










R.Striy -s.Yasenica. 1983-2010

"0" to the post 518.00 m BS










R.Slavske - смт. Slavske.1927-2010

"0" post 593.15 m BS










Lymnitsa - v. Perevozec 1940-2010

"0" post 236.03 m BS










R.Kalus-v.Nova Ushyca 1963-2010

"0" fast 164.26 m BS